Comparison of male and female life expectancy at birth for countries and territories as defined in the 2011 CIA Factbook, with selected bubbles labelled. The green dotted line corresponds to equal female and male life expectancy. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their population.[1][2] (In the SVG file, hover over a bubble to highlight it and show its data.)

Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the brevity of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. Longevity has been a topic not only for the scientific community but also for writers of travelscience fiction, and utopian novels.

There are many difficulties in authenticating the longest human life span ever by modern verification standards, owing to inaccurate or incomplete birth statistics. Fiction, legend, and folklore have proposed or claimed life spans in the past or future vastly longer than those verified by modern standards, and longevity narratives and unverified longevity claims frequently speak of their existence in the present.

life annuity is a form of longevity insurance.

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“Lifespan” Courses


CS50’s Introduction to
Computer ScienceSchools and Partners:HarvardXCourse

Becoming an Effective
LeaderSchools and Partners:UQxCourse

Programming for
Everybody (Getting
Started with Python)Schools and Partners:MichiganXCourse

Shaping Work of the
FutureSchools and Partners:MITxCourse

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“Life Science” Courses

Ethics in Life Sciences
and Healthcare: Exploring
Bioethics through MangaSchools and Partners:KyotoUxCourse
Metabolomics in Life
SciencesSchools and Partners:OsakaUxCourse
Mathematical Modeling in
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Bioethics through Mang…Schools and Partners:KyotoUxCourse
Statistics and RSchools and Partners:HarvardXCourseIntroduction to Linear
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恐龙的生态系统 | Los
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The Immune System: New
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Principles of
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Introduction to Animal
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The Chemistry of LifeSchools and Partners:KyotoUxCourseClimate Change Science
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Data Science and
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History Illustration 101Schools and Partners:NewcastleXCourse
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Life expectancy, as of 2010

For a more comprehensive list, see List of countries by life expectancy.

Various factors contribute to an individual’s longevity. Significant factors in life expectancy include gendergenetics, access to health carehygiene, diet and nutritionexerciselifestyle, and crime rates. Below is a list of life expectancies in different types of countries:

Population longevities are increasing as life expectancies around the world grow:

  • Australia: 80 years in 2002, 81.72 years in 2010
  • France: 79.05 years in 2002, 81.09 years in 2010
  • Germany: 77.78 years in 2002, 79.41 years in 2010
  • Italy: 79.25 years in 2002, 80.33 years in 2010
  • Japan: 81.56 years in 2002, 82.84 years in 2010
  • Monaco: 79.12 years in 2002, 79.73 years in 2011
  • Spain: 79.06 years in 2002, 81.07 years in 2010
  • UK: 80 years in 2002, 81.73 years in 2010
  • USA: 77.4 years in 2002, 78.24 years in 2010

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